**Biplot analysis vs. formal statistical analysis**

The above figure is presented to make the point that biplot analysis and statistical analysis are complementary in data analysis. From data to decision involves 3 steps: 1) data visualization, 2) pattern discovery, and 3) hypothesis test.

Biplot analysis is very useful in Steps 1 and 2, while conventional statistical analysis is critical in Step 3. This last step is not always necessary, however. It is necessary only when the pattern is not clear enough and when a critical decision is to be made over vague patterns. Biplot analysis and formal statistical analysis are complementary. Joint use of both can maximize understanding of the data, but for the analysis of any data that can be arranged into a two-way table, biplot analysis should be the first choice.